vineri, 18 februarie 2011


Desi primul nostru presedinte postdecembrist ne-a spus clar ca "ratele se trag din camioane" aka "ducks come from tthe trucks" (in loc de "dacians come from the tracians") eu am fost multa vreme convinsa ca tracii, din care se trag dacii=getii, erau o ramura a scitilor, care sunt amintiti si in Biblie ca fiind un meam tare crud si salbatic. Despre sciti a scris insa mai pe larg Herodot, spunand, asa cum am citit in Istoria Romanilor a lui C-tin C. Giurascu si Dinu C. Giurascu, ca Scitia cuprindea tot nordul Marii Negre, inclusiv tinuturile noastre. Atata doar ca ei veneau din stepele Asiei si erau niste cuceritori care ulterior se pare ca au fost asimilati de popoarele pe care le-au cucerit. Despre ei si unele din obiceiurile lor am gasit cateva date interesante publicate pe situl pe care l-am mai pomenit candva, Listverse.  Am sa copiez textul original si o sa-l traduc cat de bine pot.

Top 10 Interesting Facts about the Scythians

The Scythians were a nomadic tribe that dominated the steppes for nearly five hundred years (From the 8th to approximately the 3rd Centuries BC). The Scythians spoke a tongue from the Northeastern Iranian language family. The Scythians were renowned for their ability to shoot their arrows with deadly accuracy from horseback. This talent astounded their neighbors, who referred to them as the “horse-bowmen.” The greatest amount of territory under Scythian influence extended west to east from Ukraine to an area of Siberia just above Mongolia. Scythians settled as far west as what is now modern-day Romania and Hungary and appeared in what is now modern-day Iran just as the Assyrians and Medes were battling for supremacy in the Near-East.

 Top 10 Lucruri interesante despre Sciti

 Scitii erau un trib nomadic care a dominat stepele aproape 500 de ani (din al optulea pana in al treilea secol IH). Scitii vorbeau o limba din familia limbajului Iranian Nordestic. Scitii erau renumiti pt abilitatea lor de a trage cu arcul de pe cal cu o acuratete mortala (letala). Acest talent ii soca pe vecinii lor, care se refereau la ei ca "arcasii-calare". Cea mai mare parte a teritoriului aflat sub influienta scitica se intindea de la vest la est din Ucraina pana la o suprafata din Siberia chiar deasupra Mongoliei. Scitii s-au stabilit spre vest unde acum exista Romania si Ungaria si au aparut in zona in care este acum Iranul chiar cand Asirienii si Mezii se luptau pt suprematie in Orientul Apropiat.

10. The Defeat of the Assyrians

The Assyrians attempted to imitate the grandeur of the Babylonians, but their despotic rule was held together by the might of their army and the terror of their secret agents. The Scythians displaced and drove another steppe tribe, the Cimmerians, toward Assyrian territory. These Cimmerians created havoc for the Assyrian army, who had great difficulty reacting to the raids of these swiftly moving horsemen. The increasing encroachment of the Cimmerians weakened the Assyrians and provided their vassals with opportunity to rebel. Egypt expelled the Assyrians and regained it independence. Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, panicked at his contracting frontiers and sacked Babylon and destroyed Susa in an attempt to terrorize his remaining peoples into submission. Meanwhile, in the wake of the Cimmerians, the Scythians were provided with increasingly tempting opportunities to raid Assyria. They surged into the Middle East, overwhelming the Assyrian infantry with their speed and firepower. The Babylonians and Medes formed an alliance, and with the mercenary aid of the Scythians, shattered the Assyrian Empire.

10. Infrangerea Asirienilor.

Asirienii au incercat sa imite grandoarea Babilonienilor, dar jugul lor despotic era asigurat prin forta armelor si teroarea agentilor secreti. Scitienii au deplasat un alt trib din stepa, Cimerienii, inspre teritoriul Asirian.  Acesti Cimerieni au provocat mari distrugeri armatei Asiriene, care cu greu tinea piept raidurilor acestor calareti f rapizi. Navalirea crescanda a Cimerienilor i-a slabit pe Asirieni si astfel vasalii lor au avut oportunitatea sa se revolte. Egiptul i-a alungat pe Asirieni si si-a recapatat independenta. Asurbanipal, regele Asiriei, a intrat in panica vazand cum i se micsoreaza teritoriul si a pradat Babilonul si a distrus Susa in incercarea de a teroriza popoarele pe care le mai avea in stapanire. Intre timp, urmand calea Cimerienilor, Scitii au descoperit ca au oportunitati tentante de a ataca (navali in) Asiria. Ei au navalit in Orientul Mijlociu, coplesind infanteria Asiriana cu viteza si forta lor de foc (parca trageau cu arcul, nu cu pusca?) (armata). Babilonienii si Mezii au format o alianta si cu ajutorul mercenarilor sciti au distrus (spart in bucati) Imperiul Asirian.

9. Equipment

The full-bearded Scythians wore tall pointed caps, long coats clasped around their waists by a belt, and pants tucked into their boots. The wealthier warriors had iron scales sewn to leather as jackets, while the average Scythian relied on their round oblong wicker shields draped in leather for protection.

The primary weapon of the Scythians was their short composite bow, which could fire an arrow up to eighty yards. When they hunted birds, the Scythians used a fine arrowhead, as they aimed for the eyes. When they shot at other warriors, however, the Scythians used barbed arrowheads designed to tear a wound open on the way out. They also brewed their own poisons for their arrow tips, a mixture of snake venom, putrefied human blood, and, to hasten infection, dung. The secondary weapons of the Scythians were the sagaris, a curved battle-axe, and the akinakes, a curved short-sword.

9. Echipamentul.

 Scitii cei barbosi purtau caciuli ascutite, mantii lungi prinse la mijloc cu o centura, si pantaloni bagati in cizme (pt poza mergeti pe site). Razboinicii  mai bogati aveau jachete de piele pe care erau cusute zale de fier, in timp ce Scitii de rand se bazau pt protectie pe scuturile lor rectangulare rotunjite la colturi, impletite din nuiele si acoperite cu piele.

Arma de baza a Sctilor era arcul lor scurt facut din mai multe parti, cu care puteau sa traga sageti pana la aproape 80 de metri. Cand vanau pasari Scitii foloseau o sageata subtire, pt  ca tinteau ochii. Cand trageau catre alti razboinici foloseau capete de sageti cu marginile ascutite in sus, ca sa sfasie carnea cand erau scoase. Deasemenea isi preparau singuri fiertura cu care isi ungeau capetele sagetilor, un maestec de venin de sarpe, sange uman putred si, ca sa grabeasca infectarea, balegar. Armele secundare ale scitilor erau sagaris, o secure curbata, si akinakes, o sabie scurta, curbata.

8. Burial mounds

The Scythians’ culture may have disappeared long ago, but their burial mounds remain. These kurhans were built as repositories for the great Scythian chieftains and kings. Atop these strange mounds stood crudely carved stone figures, guarding the bodies and possessions of the deceased interned within. The largest of these kurhans are the height of a six-story building and are more than ninety metres across. The mounds were not just piles of dirt or refuse, but were actually layers of sod to provide grazing in the afterlife for the many horses buried along with the deceased.

8. Morminte in movile.

O fi disparut cultura Scitilor cu mult timp in urma dar movilele lor in care sunt morminte au ramas. Aceste kurgane au fost construite drept cavouri pt marile capetenii sau regi Sciti. In varful acestor movile ciudate stateau figuri de piatra sculptate grosolan (necizelate), pazind corpurile si posesiunile decedatilor din interior. Cel mai mare dintre aceste kurgane (noi am invatat ca li se zice gorgane) e de inaltimea unei cladiri cu sase nivele si are mai mult de 90 de metri diametru. Movilele nu erau doar mormane de pamant sau gunoaie, ci erau de fapt straturi de brazde de iarba ca sa sigure pasunatul dupa moarte al cailor cei multi ingropati deodata cu decedatul. 

Daca nu ma insel unii istorici presupun ca si in tara noastra unele movile, presarate mai ales in Baragan, ar putea fi morminte scitice, dar pana acum nu s-a incercat excavarea lor sau poate s-a incercat, dar fara rezultat.

7. Death of a great man

As mentioned in the previous item, the burial of Scythian nobility was quite elaborate. In one kurhan uncovered in 1898, archaeologists found 400 horses arrayed in a geometric pattern around the body of the slain warrior. It was not only horses who were slaughtered, but consorts and retainers also had the dubious honor of joining their lord in the afterlife. Herodotus reported that mourners would pierce their left hands with arrows, slash their arms, and cut off portions of their ears in demonstration of their sorrow. A year following the burial, 50 horses and 50 slaves were killed, gutted, stuffed, and impaled on posts around the kurhan. The horses stood upright, mounted by the dead slaves, ghastly sentinels guarding the tomb of their slain lord.

7. Moartea unui om de vaza.
Asa cum am mentionat anterior, inmormantarea unei notabilitati Scite era destul de elaborata. Intr-un kurgan decoperit in 1898 arheologii au gasit 400 de cai (mie mi se pare un nr cam mare, pe Wikipedia am gasit cel mult 24 de cai) aranjati in motive geometrice in jurul corpului razboinicului ucis. Nu erau numai caii sacrificati, dar si consoartele si suita deasemenea aveau onoarea dubioasa de a-l insoti pe stapanul lor in lumea de dincolo. Herodot spune ca cei intristati isi strapungeau mana stanga cu sageti (dreapta le era necesara in lupte), isi crestau bratele si isi taiau portiuni din ureche ca sa-si demonstreze intristarea (durerea). in anul care urma inmormantarii 50 de cai si 50 de sclavi erau ucisi, li se scoteau maruntaiele, erau impaiati si trais in teapa in jurul kurganului. Caii stateau drepti, incalecati de sclavii morti, sentinele ingrozitoare care pazeau mormantul stapanului lor decedat.

6. Golden artifacts

Before the Scythians can be dismissed as blood-thirsty barbarians, one really needs to see their elaborate golden artwork. Scythian gold came from the Altai district and from frequent raids on Greek and Persian cities. Gold was sewn into their garments in the form of plates, fashioned into belts, broaches, necklaces, torques, scabbards, helmets, earrings, and ornaments, and worked into their weapons. The Scythians had an eye for design, especially depictions of griffins, lions, wolves, stags, leopards, eagles and – the Scythians’ favourite motif – animals in deadly combat. The historian, William Montgomery McGovern, claimed, “From the mass of evidence now before us, it seems highly probably that this Scytho-Sarmatian animal style spread to all parts of the ancient world and had an important effect not only upon European art but upon the art of ancient China.”

6. Obiecte artistice din aur.

Inainte de a dispretui (respinge) pe Sciti ca pe niste barbari insetati de sange cineva trebuie neaparat sa vada arta lor alaborata de prelucrare a aurtului. Aurul Scit venea din zona Altau si din frecventele raiduri in orasele Grecesti si persane. Aurul era cusut in imbracamintea lor in forma de placute, fasonat inca cingatori, brose, coliere, inele de gat, teci pt sabii, coifuri, cercei si ornamente si lucrat in armele lor. Scitii aveau talent la dizain, in special la pictarea de grifoni, lei, lupi, cerbi, leoparzi, pajuri si--motivul favorit al Scitilor-animale care se lupta pe viata si pe moarte. Istoricul William Montgomery McGovern declara: Din masa de dovezi aflata in fata noastra pare f probabil ca acest stil animalier Scito-Sarmatic s-a raspandit in toata lumea antica si a avut un efect important nu numai asupra artei Europene dar si asupra artei Chinei antice.

5. Tattoos

Herodotus testified that the Scythians wore tattoos as a sign of their nobility. A Scythian without tattoos showed that he was of low station. The existence of Scythian tattoos was confirmed in 1948, when a Russian archaeologist uncovered the frozen body of a Scythian chieftain. His tattoos included stylized images of a stag and a ram on his right arm, two griffins on his chest, and a fish on his right leg. These findings were seen by some experts as further evidence that fanciful Scythian depictions of wild animals had influenced the art of China, Persia, India, and Eastern Europe.

5. Tatuaje

 Herodot certifica faptul ca Scitii purtau tatuaje ca semn al nobolitatii lor. Un Scit fara tatuaj arata ca este de joasa conditie. Existenta tauajelor Scite a fost confirmata in 1948 cand un arheolog rus a descoperit corpul congelat al unei capatenii Scite. Tatuajele lui includeau omagini stilizate ale unui cerb si  ale unui berbec pe bratul drept, doi grifoni pe piept si un peste pe piciorul drept. Aceste descoperiri au fost vazute de unii experti ca o dovada ca pictarea fantastica a animalelor salbatice de catre Sciti a influientat arta Chnei, Persiei, Indiei si a Europei de est.

4. Scalps and Heads

After battle, Scythian warriors would drink the blood of the first enemy he had killed. With the bloody taste still in his mouth, the Scythian would decapitate the corpses of his slain enemies to use as grisly vouchers in the distribution of booty. Only warriors who presented the heads of their slain enemies would receive their share from the chieftain or king. After receiving his share, a warrior would take the scalps from his collection of heads as a lurid inventory of martial prowess. The scalps were affixed to their bridles and clothing and even sewn into cloaks. The skulls of the strongest, most respected, enemies were cut, gilded with gold, and made into wine goblets. Scythians also used the skin from their victims’ limbs as covers for the quivers that hung on the right side of their belts.

4. Scalpuri si Capete.

Dupa batalie razboinicii Sciti beau sangele primului inamic pe care l-au ucis. Cu gustul sangelui inca in gura Scitii decapitau cadavrele inamicilor ucisi ca sa le foloseasca drept oribile recipise la distribuirea prazii. Numai razboinicii care prezentau capetele inamicilor ucisi isi primeau  partea de la capitanul sau regele lor. Dupa ce isi primea partea razboinicul lua scalpul din colectia lui de capete ca un inventar neplacut al vitejiei lor martiale. Scalpurile erau fixate la capastru si imbracaminte si chiar cusute pe mantii. capatanile celor mai puternici si mai respectati inamici erau taiate, aurite si facute pocale pt vin. Scitii deasemenea foloseau pieile membrelor victimilor drept acoperitoare pt tolbele care atarnau pe partea drepata a cingatoarei.(Vi se pare dezgustator? Nazistii din lagarele de concentrare foloseau pieile tatuate ale celor ucisi in lagare drept abajururi, grasimea cadavrelor pt sapunuri, etc, asa scrie in "Fabrica Mortii" de Ota Kraus/Erich Kulka)

3. Marijuana

The Scythians were fond of marijuana and were responsible for bringing it from Central Asia to Egypt and Eastern Europe. In one Scythian grave, archaeologists found a skull with three small holes drilled into it – probably to ease swelling. Beside the skull, the archaeologists found a cache of marijuana, ostensibly to relieve the man’s headache in the next life. From Herodotus comes what is, in all likelihood, the most ancient description of hotboxing: “After the burial . . . they set up three poles leaning together to a point and cover them with woolen mats . . . They make a pit in the centre beneath the poles and throw red-hot stones into it . . . they take the seed of the hemp and creeping under the mats they throw it on the red-hot stones, and being thrown, it smolders and sends forth so much steam that no Greek vapour-bath could surpass it. The Scythians howl in their joy at the vapour-bath.”

3. Marijuana

Scitilor le placea f mult marijuana si au fost responsabili pt aducerea ei din Asia Centrala in Egipt si Europa de Est. Intr-un mormant Scit arheologii au gasit un craniu cu trei gaurele facute in el (cu burghiul)-probabil ca se poata dezumfla. Langa craniu arheologii au gasit ascunsa niste marijuana, in mod clar ca sa-i usureze omului durerile de cap in viata urmatoare. De la Herodot vine ceea ce pare cea mai veche descriere a inhalrii de marijuana intr-un spatiu inchis: "Dupa inmormantare...ei ridicau trei prajini unite la cap si le acopereau cu covoare de lana...Faceau o groapa in centru sub prajini si aruncau pietre incinse in ea..luau seminte de canepa si tarandu-se sub covoare le aruncau (semintele) peste pietrele incinse, si dupa aceea mocneau soi fumegau asa de tare ca nici o baie de aburi greceasca nu le intrcea. Scitii urlau de bucurie in acesta baie de aburi".

2. Amazons

Herodotus relates the tale of a clash between Scythians and Amazons near the Sea of Azov. When the Scythians learned that their fierce opponents were, in fact, women, they sent their most virile warriors to woo, rather than war, these female warriors. Somehow, the Amazons were seduced by the charms of the wily Scythians. They were, however, unwilling to be the brides of their Scythian lovers, turning their nose up at the domestic role that Scythian wives were relegated to. Eventually, according to the tale, the two groups formed a joint tribe.

There is likely little truth to this tale, but archaeologists have recently found the remains of a number of well-armed Scythian women. In all likelihood, this means that Scythian society saw a place for female warriors.

2. Amazoanele

Herodot relateaza despre o inclestare intre Sciti siAmazoane langa marea de Azov. Cand Scitii au aflat ca oponentii lor inversunati erau de falt femei si-au trimis cei mai virili razboinici ca sa le iubesca mai degraba decat sa se razboiasca cu aceste razboinice. Cumva, Amzoanele au fost seduse de farmecele Scitilor cei smecheri. Totusi, n-au acceptat sa fie miresele iubilor Sciti, stamband din nas la rolul domestic la care erau retrogradate nevestele Scite. Apoi, zice povestea, cele doua triburi s-au unit.

E greu de crezut ca aceasta poveste e adevarat dar de curand arheologistii au gasit ramasitele unui numar de femei Scite f bine inarmate. Se pare ca asta inseamna ca societatea Scita a gasit un loc pt femeile razboinice.

1. Showdown with Darius

In 513 BC The Scythians were attacked by Darius the Great, who raised a force of 700,000 men to put an end to their bothersome raids into his territory. Taking advantage of the vast steppe, the Scythians merely retreated when the Persians advanced and advanced when the Persians retreated. The Scythian scouts milled about, striking from a distance if any of the Persians ever had the misfortune of breaking formation or exposing a flank. Herodotus reports that, at one point, both sides had drawn up battle lines when a loud whooping arose from among the Scythian warriors. The Scythian horsemen suddenly broke their battle line and galloped impulsively after a hare. “These fellows have a hearty contempt for us,” Darius is reported to have muttered to an aide. Running low on food and morale, Darius eventually withdrew his army.

1. Spectacolul lui Darius. (despre acest eveniment scrie si in Istoria Romanilor, referindu-se la scrierile lui Herodot)

In 513IH (in IR scrie 514IH) Scitii au fost atacati de Darius cel Mare care a adunat o armata de 700000 de oameni (In IR scrie ca ar fi fost 800000 de osteni, cifra care autorilor li se pare mult exagerata, plus 600 de corabii) ca sa sfarseasca cu raidurile lor suparatoare in teritoriul sau (In IR scrie ca diversele neamuri tracice s-au inspaimantat vazand o armata asa de mare si s-au predat fara lupta, dar nu si getii "cei mai viteji si drepti dintre traci" insa rezistenta lor a fost f repede infranta). Folosindu-se de avantajul stepei vaste Scitii doar s-au retras cand au avansat Persii si au avansat cand s-au retras Persii. Scitii trimiteau cercetasi la distanta de mile in jurul lor,  lovind de la distanta daca vreun nefericit de Persan rupea formatia sau isi expunea vreun flanc (lupta de guerilla si mai multe nu). Herodot scrie ca la un moment dat ambele armate erau asezate in linie gata de bataie cand deodata s-au auzit niste chiuituri puternice din partea razboinicilor Sciti. Calaretii Sciti au rupt randurile si au inceput sa galopeze dupa un iepure. "Tipii astia ne dispretuiesc din inima" se zice ca ar fi murmurat Darius catre un ajutor al sau. nemaiavand destula hrana (e si greu sa saturi atata amar de osteni) si cu moralul la pamant Darius ulterior s-a retras.

Mai multe date istorice despre sciti se pot gasi in Encilopedia Dacica.

4 comentarii:

disa spunea...

Multumesc pentru aceste informatii, Viorica.

Viorica spunea...

Asta e cea mai frumoasa rasplata pt efortul meu (la un moment dat ma intrebam "cine m-a pus?", ma refer la traducere)

Anonim spunea...

cred ca informatie oferita nu prea pare a fi veridica,traducerea este efectuata la un nivel jos,dar totusi mersi Viorica

Viorica spunea...

Si eu as fi zis mersi pt comentariu daca as fi stiut cui sa-i adresez multumirea. Informatiile nu-mi apartin, le-am pus cum le-am gasit. Cat despre traducere...atat m-am priceput.