sâmbătă, 21 noiembrie 2009

Hokusai One hundred Poems 91-99

Tehnica folosita de Hokusai se numeste ukiyo-e, adica "picturile unei lumi care pluteste". Desenul se executa pe placi de lemn si era sau nu colorat. Am gasit un articol care explica in ce mod se foloseau aceste placi pt obtinerea de gravuri (tiparituri). Mi se pare interesant sa copiez textul si sa-l traduc (sper sa nu plictisesc pt ca e cam lung) inainte de a publica poemele propriu zise. Ca de obicei observatiile personale vor fide culoare albastra. Hokusai a ilustrat numai 8 poeme din aceasta serie, le voi publica si pe cele lipsa dupa traducerea textului despre tiparire.

Although Chinese methods of color printing were known, they were too expensive to apply to ukiyo-e. Japanese print-making was largely a commercial enterprise which aimed to produce cheap household decoration for ordinary people. At first prints were black and white illustrations in books but when cheap vegetable dyes appeared, color became possible.

Desi metodele chinezesti de tiparit in culori erau cunoscute ele erau prea scumpe pt a fi aplicate la ukiyo-e. Tiparirea japoneza era mai ales o intreprindere comerciala cu scopul de a produce decoratii casnice ieftine pt oamenii simpli. La inceput tipariturile erau ilustratii de carte in alb si negru dar cand au aparut coloranti ieftini vegetali au inceput sa fie colorate.

Print production was a collaborative effort. The publisher conceived and commissioned the work, financed its production, managed its sales and distribution and generally coordinated the efforts of all involved. An artist designed the print. A separate calligrapher was used if words accompanied the illustration. Then there would be block-maker, a printer and a paper-maker.

Producerea de tiparituri se facea in colaborare (era munca de echipa). Editorul (cam asta ar fi termenul modern) concepea si comanda opera, ii finanta productia ,se ocupa de vanzare si de distributie si in general coordona eforturile tuturor celor care erau implicati. Un artist facea tiparul. Daca ilustratia era insotita de cuvinte era angajat un caligraf separat. Pe urma exista un om care producea placile, un tipograf si un producator de hartie.

The artist supplied his design as an ink line drawing with a wash to symbolize the colors. A student would make a copy on thin, transparent paper. The publisher would secure thick, seasoned cherry blocks of which both sides were used. The copy would be laid on the block and the block-maker would cut around the lines. Then he would clear the wood in between, leaving the lines in high relief making a 'key-block.' Ink was rubbed on the raised lines and proofing paper placed over the block. Then the block-maker rubbed the paper to create a 'pull' or copy of the image. These 'pulls' were used to make other blocks for colors. Each of these blocks would be carved.

Artistul producea tiparul sau ca un desen in cerneala cu un gen depete care simbolizau culoarea. Un elev facea o copie pe hartie subtire, transparenta (am vazut ca s-a folosit asemenea metoda si in "Furtuna la Palat" cand s-a copiat conturul unui desen folosind hartie trasparenta) Editorul punea la dispozitie placi groase, netezite, de lemn de cires care erau folosite pe ambele fete. Copia se aseza pe placa si un mester taia in jurul liniilor. Pe urma curata lemnul dintre ele lasand liniile in relief, producand o placa "cheie". Liniile in relief se frecau cu cerneala, apoi se aseza deasupra foaia de hartie. Pe urma gravorul freca hartia ca sa creeze un "model" sau o copie a imaginii (cam in genul acesta cred ca se fac modelele pt goblenuri sau cele pt lasete, dar acestea se transpun pe panza alba). Aceste "modele" se foloseau ca sa se faca alte placi pt culori. Fiecare din aceasta placa urma sa fie sculptata.

Then the printer took the key-block and rubbed it with ink again. Damped hand-made paper was placed on it and repeatedly rubbed. The inked outlines were allowed to dry. The printer then mixed the colors. Each block was covered in paint and each color printed in turn. The printer's skill was key as he had to wipe on the color to produce exactly the effect required. As the print passed between blocks it was essential that the colors remained aligned. Key to this were the registration marks which were added by the block-maker.

Pe urma mesterul tiparitor lua tiparul si il freca din nou cu cerneala. Se punea deasupra hartie produsa manual si umezita si se freca in mod repetat. Contururile de cerneala erau lasate sa se usuce. Pe urma tiparitorul amesteca culorile. Fiecare placa era acoperita cu vopsea si se tiparea fiecare culoare pe rand. De baza era indemanarea mesterului pt ca el trebuia sa stearga culoarea ca sa produca exact efectul dorit. Pe masura ce tiparitura trecea peste placi era esential ca toate culorile sa ramana aliniate. De baza pt asta erau marcajele care se adaugau de catre gravor.

Until the late 19th century, most colors were made from vegetable extracts. Exposed to the light, the sky-blues, violets and pinks have faded to buffs and grays. Mica or metal dusts were sometimes applied to create shiny surfaces. Print runs in the 18th century were limited to 200 because after that the key-block lines began to wear down. Later the color blocks would become so saturated with paint that they ceased to produce even results.

Pana spre sfarsitul sec 19 majoritatea culorilor erau facute din extracte vegetale. Expuse la lumina albastrul cerului, violetul si rozul paleau si deveneau cam gri (am invatat la cursurile de chime organica cu tema coloranti ca f importanti sunt mordantii, cei care fixeaza culoarea, orice gospodina care vopseste oua de Pasti sau Inaltare stie ca in acest caz colorantul respectiv se fixeaza cu otet, pt alti coloranti se folosesc alte substante, cred ca alauni, gospodinele care isi vopseau panza tesuta in casa cu extracte vegetale din coji de ceapa, urzica, petale de flori, etc stiu mai bine despre ce e vorba) Uneori se aplica mica sau praf metalic pt a obtine suprafete stralucitoare (pt icoanele noastre in stil bizantin se folosea chiar praf de aur pt aureole, fondul picturilor lui Giotto deasemenea era din praf de aur). Tipariturile facute in sec 18 erau limitate la 200 pt ca dupa aceea liniile tiparelor incepeau sa se uzeze. Mai tarziu placile colorate se imbibau atat de tare cu vopsea incat nu se mai puteau folosi.

In the late 18th century, a single design would be carried over 2 or 3 pages. These were meant to be joined at the edges, but each sheet remains a work of art in its own right. Prints were often issued in large series, kept in boxes or mounted in albums. By the end of the 18th century a series ran anywhere from 36 to 100+. Sometimes 5 or more sheets were joined together horizontally and rolled up like a scroll painting. These usually depicted a great panoramic scene. In addition to selling direct to the public, print-makers often made special commissioned surimono which included decorated poetry, New Year's greetings, birth or marriage announcements. These were small and filled with fine detail and lavish printing.

Spre sfarsitul sec 18 un desen se continua pe 2-3 pagini. Asta insemna ca foile se uneau la capete dar fiecare foaie ramana oopera de arta de sine statatoare. Tipariturile adesea se faceau in serii mari, se pastrau in lazi sau se montau in albume (Lee-San i-a daruit lui Song-Yeun un album cu picturile unei artiste, e drept ca era chinezoaica) Spre sfarsitul sec 18 o serie putea fi de la 36 la peste 100. Cateodata 5 sau mai multe foi erau unite orizontal si rulate ca un sul (n-am mai fost de mult la Muzeul de la Palatul Regal dar parca am vazut acolo ceva de Hokusai sau poate si alt pictor japonez, care se intindea pe mai multe foi, bineinteles ca nu erau rulate). Acestea de obicei reprezentau o scena panoramica. In plus fata de oferta directa de vanzare catre public tiparitorii faceau uneori surimono comandate special, care includeau poezii decorate, urari de Anul Nou, anunturi de nastere sau casatorie. Acestea erau mici si pline de detalii fine si erau elegant tiparite.

94. Sangi Masatsune

Miyoshino no
Yama no akikaze
Sayo fukete
Furusato samuku
Koromo utsu nari

Fujiwara no Masatsune

From Mount Yoshino
Blows a chill, autumnal wind.
In the deepening night
The ancient village shivers:
Sounds of beating cloth I hear.

100. Juntoku In

Momoshiki ya
Furuki nokiba no
Shinobu ni mo
Nao amari aru
Mukashi nari keri

Emperor Juntoku

In this ancient house,
Paved with a hundred stones,
Ferns grow in the eaves;
But numerous as they are,
My old memories are more.

Mi-ar fi placut ca Hokusai sa fi ilustrat si acest poem.

Poem number 91
Go-Kyogoku Sessho Saki no Dajodaijin (Fujiwara noYoshitsune) 1169-1206, prime minister and regent

On a chilling mat,
Drawing close my folded quilt,
I must sleep alone,
While all through the frosty night
Sounds a cricket's forlorn chirp.

Go Kyogoku no Sessho Saki no Dajodaijin

Naku ya shimo yo no
Samushiro ni
Koromo katashiki
Hitori kamo nen

Poem number 92
Lady Nijo-in no Sanuki 1141-1217 Member of the Emperors court

Like a rock at sea,
E'en at ebb-tide hid from view,
Is my tear-drenched sleeve:--
Never for a moment dry,
And unknown in human ken.

93. Nijo In no Sanuki

Waga sode wa
Shiohi ni mienu
Oki no ishi no
Hito koso shirane
Kawaku ma mo nashi

Poem number 93
Kamakura Udaijin (Minamoto no Sanetomo) 1192-1219. Son of Minamoto no Yoritomo, conqueror and ruler of all Japan.

Would that this, our world,
Might be ever as it is!
What a lovely scene!
See that fisherwoman's boat,
Rope-drawn, rowed along the beach.

Kamakura no Udaijin
Yo no naka wa
Tsune ni mo ga mo na
Nagisa kogu
Ama no obune no
Tsuna de kanashi mo

Poem number 95
Saki no Daisojo Jien 1155.1225, archbishop

Though I am not fit,
I have dared to shield the folk
Of this woeful world
With my black-dyed sacred sleeve:--
I, who live on Mount Hiei.

Daisojo Jien

Ukiyo no tami ni
Ou kana
Waga tatsu soma ni
Sumizome no sode

Poem number 96
Nyudo Saki no Dajodaijin (Saionji Kintsune, Fujiwara no Kintsune) 1171-1244, prime minister then priest

Not the snow of flowers,
That the hurrying wild-wind drags
Round the garden court,
Is it that here, withering, falls:--
That in truth is I, myself.

Nyudo Saki no Dajodaijin

Hana sasou
Arashi no niwa no
Yuki nara de
Furi yuku mono wa
Waga mi nari keri

Aici e alt exemplu despre diferenta dintre poemul in care poetul isi deplange parul cel alb si viziunea lui Hokusai, dupa parerea lui HK

Poem number 97
Gonchunagon Sadaie (Fujiwara no Sadaie, Fujiwara no Teika) 1162-1241, one of the most famous poets in Japan

Like the salt sea-weed,
Burning in the evening calm,
On Matsuo's shore,
All my being is aglow,
Waiting one who does not come.
GonChunagon Sadaie

Konu hito o
Matsuho no ura no
Yunagi ni
Yaku ya moshio no
Mi mo kogare tsutsu

Poem number 98
Junii Ietaka (Jozammi Karyu, Fujiwara no Ietaka) 1158-1237 poet

Lo! at Nara's brook
Evening comes, and rustling winds
Stir the oak-trees' leaves--
Not a sign of summer left
But the sacred bathing there.
Junii Ietaka

Kaze soyogu
Nara no ogawa no
Yugure wa
Misogi zo natsu no
Shirushi nari keru

Dupa parera lui HK si aici ar fi un autoportret al lui Hokusai.
Poem number 99
Go-Toba In 1180-1239 Emperor Go-Toba, patron of arts

For some men I grieve;--
Some men are hateful to me;--
And this wretched world
To me, weighted down with care,
Is a place of misery.

Gotoba In

Hito mo oshi
Hito mo urameshi
Ajiki naku
Yo o omou yue ni
Mono omou mi wa

Poate nicaieri nu este exprimata mai pregnant ideea ca razboiul si ura fac din aceasta lume un iad ca in acest poem si in aceasta ilustratie. De data asta comentariul imi apartine.

Ei, si cu asta lunga si placuta truda de a publica aceste poeme atat de reprezentative pt cultura japoneza precum si ilustrarea lor de catre Hokusai a luat sfarsit. Artistul, asa cum am mai scris, are la activ o bogata opera, din care as mai cita seria celor "36 vederi ale Muntelui Fuji " si cele 10 picturi aditionale, dar si "History of Three nation" despre care nici Google nici Wikipedia nu au fost in stare sa-mi dea amanunte. Ma uit la ilustrate precum mata in calendar, nu inteleg nimic. Poate s-a scris despre ele in japoneza dar...

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