sâmbătă, 28 noiembrie 2009

7 Common Myths about Swine Flu=7 mituri despre gripa porcina

Pt ca ultima data cand am fost in piata cineva a stranutat sonor si am auzit un strigat disperat "cine a stranutat?" iar una din scolile din cartierul nostru a fost inchisa pentru dezinfectare dupa ce s-au depistat cazuri de gripa porcina cred ca e de interes mai larg sa copiez si sa traduc niste materiale primite intr-un newslettwer de la ivillage!

7 Common Myths about Swine Flu

Information Overload

Scared of getting sick with the flu—or just sick of all the swine-flu hullabaloo? It’s easy to feel a little of both after months of H1N1 headlines dominating the news. To preserve your sanity as well as your health, it helps to sort the facts from the fables that have circulated about the world’s first pandemic flu in more than 40 years. Here are seven of the most common myths health experts are trying to dispel.

Informatie excesiva

Sunteti speriati ca va imbolnaviti de gripa-- sau doar satui de tot balamucul asta cu gripa porcina? Este usor sa simtiti asta dupa luni in care gripa H1N1 a tinut capul de afis in toate buletinele de stiri. Ca sa va mentineti atat sanatatea mintala cat si cea corporala e bine sa deosebiti adevarul de povestile care au circulat in legatura cu cea mai grava pandemie de gripa din ultimii 40 de ani. Aici sunt 7 din miturile pe care expertii in sanatate incearca sa le demonteze.

#1 I’m Healthy—I Don’t Need to Worry

It’s true that most people infected with the new H1N1 virus have recovered fully without medical treatment. But this virus continues to show disturbing differences from run-of-the-mill flu viruses. First, it didn’t disappear over the summer. Historically, such persistence is a warning sign that a colossal fall and winter wave is in store. Government experts estimate that this flu could infect as many as half of all Americans.Second, this virus has caused more severe illness in those under 25 than in those over 65 years of age (the population that typically suffers some of the most serious cases of seasonal flu). That’s an indication that being in good health doesn’t assure protection against serious—even deadly—complications.

For these reasons, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continues to urge everyone to protect themselves by practicing good health hygiene (see “The (Swine) Flu Stops ”) and getting immunized when the H1N1 vaccine becomes available.

#1 Sunt sanatos-nu e cazul sa ma ingrijorez

E adevarat ca cei mai multi bolnavi infectati cu H1N1 s-au vindecat total fara tratament medical. Dar acest virus continua sa arate diferente ingrijoratoare fata de virusurile cunoscute care provoaca gripa. Mai intai, n-a disparut in timpul verii. Istoria ne invata ca o asemenea persistenta anunta ca un val colosal de gripa ne asteapta in toamna si iarna. Expertii guvernamentali estimeaza ca aceasta gripa ar putea infecta jumatate din populatia Americii. In al doilea rand, acest virus a provocat imbolnaviri mai severe la cei sub 25 de ani decat la cei peste 65 de ani (care in mod obisnuit se imbolnaveau mai grav de gripa sezoniera) Acesta este un indiciu ca daca esti in buna stare de sanatate asta nu iti asigura protectia impotriva complicatiilor serioase, chiar mortale.

Din cauza aceasta Centrul pentru Controlul Imbolnavirilor (CDC)al Statelor Unite continua sa ceara tuturor sa se protejeze respectand regulile stricte de igiena (vezi mai jos "Cum sa protejezi pe fiecare din familie cand cineva se imbolnaveste") si sa se vaccineze deindata ce vaccinul H1N1 devine accesibil.

#2 It’s Inevitable; Better to Get it Over With

Heard of swine flu parties? Yep, they’re gatherings centered on deliberately catching H1N1 influenza from someone with a relatively mild case. Some people have concluded that this is a smart way to protect against a more severe infection caught down the line. Others may see catching swine flu as inevitable and simply want to control when they get it.

Both are wrong-headed approaches, according to the CDC. First, there’s no way to predict the course of anyone’s infection. The same flu virus that causes mild illness in one person can cause severe illness and dangerous complications in another. Second, there is no predicting how the H1N1 virus will mutate in the months ahead. Yes, it could become more dangerous. But it could also become less so.

#2 Este inevitabil; mai bine sa trec prin asta

Ati auzit de petrecerile cu tema gripa porcina? Pai, se aduna cu totii intr-un loc cu scopul de a lua gripa de la cineva care a facut o forma relativ usoara. Unii au ajuns la concluzia ca asta e o cale desteapta de a te proteja impotriva contractarii unei forme mai severe de gripa. Altii cred ca este inevitabil sa te imbolnavesti, asa incat e mai bine sa controlezi tu momentul cand se intampla asta.

Ambele abordari sunt gresite, spune CDC. Intai, nu exista nici un mod de a prezice cum va evolua infectarea cuiva. Acelasi virus gripal poate cauza o imbolnavire usoara a unei persoane si o imbolnavire severa si complicatii periculoase la alta persoana. In al doilea rand nu exista nici o predictie ce mutatii va suferi virusul H1N1 in lunile care urmeaza. Da, ar putea sa devina si mai periculos. Dar s-ar putea si sa fie mai putin periculos.

#3 I’m Immune Because I've Had It

This is, in fact, true, but only if you were truly infected with H1N1. The problem is that few people are tested to identify the virus strain that made them sick. Your infection may have been an “ordinary,” or seasonal, flu. Even bad colds are often mistaken for flu. So even if you’ve been sick with a flu-like illness, the CDC recommends you still take steps to protect yourself.

#3 Sunt imun pt ca am avut deja gripa.

Aceasta e de fapt adevarat, dar numai daca ati fost cu adevarat infectat cu H1N1. Problema este ca putine persoane sunt testate ca sa se identifice exact forma de virus care le-a imbolnavit. Ati fi putut avea o forma "obisnuita", sezoniera de gripa. Cateodata chiar o raceala mai severa poate fi confundata cu o gripa. Asa ca,chiar daca ati suferit de o boala ce seamana (ar fi putut fi) cu gripa CDC recomanda sa iei masuri pt a te proteja.

#4 Vaccination Guarantees Protection

The H1N1 vaccine should reduce your risk of becoming infected. But no flu vaccine guarantees protection. Historically, even the best seasonal flu shots have provided only 70 to 90 percent protection, according to the CDC. The good news is that even if you still get the flu, you’ll have a lower risk for complications. Also early studies are showing H1N1 vaccines to be more effective than conventional flu shots, since it is more specifically targeted—with greater than 90 percent protection against this strain of the virus.

To reduce that final 10 percent of risk, continue practicing good infection-control habits. You know the drill: Wash hands often, avoid infected persons when you can, and be sure to get enough rest and drink plenty of fluids.

#4 Vaccinarea garanteaza protectia.

Vaccinul H1N1 reduce riscul de a te infecta. Dar nici un vaccin nu garanteaza protectia. Istoria a aratat ca nici cele mai bune vaccinuri contra gripei sezoniere nu au asigurat mai mult de 70-90% protectie, cf CDC. Vestea buna este ca daca totusi te imbolnavesti de gripa riscul complicatiilor e mai scazut. Deasemenea studiile recente au aratat ca vaccinurile H1N1 sunt mai eficiente decat cele de gripa obisnuita pt ca sunt orientate mai strict catre tinta--cu protectie de 90% impotriva acestei forme de gripa.

Pt a reduce acel procentaj de 10% risc continua sa-ti pastrezi bunele obiceiuri de igiena. Stii ce ai de facut: iti speli mainile des, te feresti cat poti sa intri in contact cu persoane infectate, te odihnesti suficient si ai grija sa bei lichide suficiente (ei nu precizeaza, dar asta nu inseamna sa bei tone de bere, de ex, pt ca berea e lichida)

#5 The Vaccine Can Give You the Flu

This is the same misconception that has long dogged seasonal flu vaccines. In part, it may stem from the fact that some people are already coming down with the flu when they get vaccinated. Others may mistake a bad cold (a different virus) as a consequence of their flu shot.

In fact, the H1N1 vaccine—like all flu vaccinations—is prepared from bits of weakened or destroyed viruses. They can’t cause flu. But a vaccine can spark a slight fever and feelings of achiness, a sign that your immune system is responding to it.

#5 Vaccinul te imbolnaveste de gripa.

Este aceeasi conceptie gresita intalnita si cand e vorba de vaccinul contra gripei obisnuite, sezoniere. In parte poate porni de la faptul ca unii deja au contractat gripa atunci cand fac vaccinul. Altii pot confunda o raceala grava (un virus diferit) cu o consecinta a vaccinarii.

De fapt vaccinul H1N1, ca si alte vaccinuri, se prepara din parti de virus slabite ca actiune sau moarte. Ele nu pot sa provoace gripa. Dar un vaccin poate produce o usoara febra si ceva dureri, semn ca sistemul imunitar reactioneaza.

#6 Taking Antibiotics Can Help

Fortunately, doctors today know better than to prescribe antibiotics for viral infections such as the flu. Antibiotics target bacteria, not viruses. Unfortunately, confusion tempts some people to dip into stashes of old antibiotics.

Don’t do it, the experts concur. Not only are antibiotics ineffective against the flu, they can have unwanted side effects. What’s more, their overuse can breed drug-resistant bacteria in your body and the environment.

#6 Te ajuta daca iei antibiotice

Din fericire acum doctorii stiu f bine ca nu trebuie sa recomande antibiotice daca ai gripa. Antibioticele sunt eficace impotriva bacteriilor, nu a infectiilor virale, cum ar fi gripa. Din nefericire confuzia tenteaza unii pacienti sa recurga la rezervele secrete de antibiotice mai vechi
(in USA f putine medicmente sunt "la liber", aproape pt toate e nevoie de reteta. Aici am cumparat Aciclovir unguent fara reteta, acolo farmacista a vazut ca aveam un herpes cat toate zilele si a refuzat sa-mi dea unguent fara reteta, noroc ca mai aveam din tara un pic, care s-a dovedit suficient)

Sa nu faceti asta, recomanda toti expertii. Nu numai ca antibioticele sunt ineficiente impotriva gripei, dar pot sa aiba si efecte secundare nedorite. Mai mult, folosirea lor excesiva poate sa produca bacterii rezistente la medicatie atat in corpul vostru, cat si in mediul inconjurator.

#7 If I Feel Okay, I’m Not Infectious

People with the flu usually don’t know it for the first 24 hours. During that time, they can spread the contagion. In addition, they remain infectious for around 24 hours after their temperature returns to normal without fever-reducing medicine. What’s more, a lucky few never develop fever or severe symptoms and, so, may not realize they’re infected and infectious.

This means that everyone needs to be practicing good hygiene (cleansing hands frequently and sneezing into a tissue or upper sleeve) even when they feel fine. And don’t rush yourself or family members back to work or school too soon.

#7 Daca ma simt bine, nu sunt contagios

Persoanele care au gripa nu stiu asta in primele 24 de ore. In acest timp ele pot sa raspandeasca boala. In plus, ele raman contagioase 24 de ore dupa ce le-a scazut febra fara sa ia medicamente antipiretice. Mai mult, cativa, putini, norocosi nu fac niciodata febra sau simptome severe, poate nici nu realizeaza ca sunt infectati si contagiosi (acelasi lucru e valabil si la scarlatina, cand s-au imbolnavit fetele mele s-au facut analize la toti copiii de la gradinita si s-a descoperit ca prietena lor cea mai buna era purtatoare de streptococ hemolitic dar cu toate astea nu a facut niciodata scarlatina).

Aceasta inseamna ca fiecare trebuie sa respecte regulile de igiena (sa se spele des pe maini si sa stranute in batista sau in partea de sus a manecii) chiar daca se simt bine. Si nu va grabiti inapoi la scoala sau la munca voi si membrii familiei voastre.

How to protect everyone in your family when one gets sick
By: Jessica Snyder Sachs

Your child, husband or roommate is down with the flu, be it seasonal or swine. You’re okay… for now. But you know how quickly the flu virus can spread through your household, with new victims getting infected just by touching a contaminated object, like a door knob or telephone, and then touching their face. Can you care for the sick while keeping yourself and other family members safe from infection?

Cum sa protejezi pe fiecare din familie cand cineva se imbolnaveste.

Copilul, sotul sau colega de camera s-a imbolnavit de gripa, sezoniera sau porcina. Deocamdata tu te simti bine. Dar stii cat de repede se poate raspandi virusul la toti cei din casa, fiecare victima infectandu-se numai prin atingerea unui obiect contaminat, cum ar fi telefonul sau clanta usii, si apoi atingerea fetzei. Poti sa ai grija de bolnav si in acelasi timp sa-i feresti pe ceilalti sa se imbolnaveasca?

Yes, you can. The first step is to get vaccinated for both seasonal and swine flu (H1N1), but the latter will only be available to certain groups at first—and there's no guarantee that vaccinated people won't get sick—so you'll still want to block these germs and increase your resistance to infection. Here's how:

Da, poti. Primul pas e sa te vaccinezi atat impotriva gripei sezoniere cat si acelei porcine IH1N1) dar ultimul vaccin nu va fi accesibil decat anumitor grupe de populatie la inceput--si nu e nici o garantie ca cei vaccinati nu se imbolnavesc--asa ca vei vrea sa blochezi acesti virusi (aici scrie microbi) si sa cresti rezistenta la infectare. Iata cum:

1. Wash, Wash, Wash Your Hands

Wash your hands throughout the day and immediately after you’ve touched anything handled by The Infected One. A thorough washing (scrubbing for 20 seconds with ordinary soap and water and rinsing well) does the trick, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibacterial soaps offer no additional advantage.

Equally effective is rubbing a quarter-size dollop of alcohol-based hand sanitizer all over your hands until it evaporates. Hand sanitizer also is convenient to leave strategically placed around the house. In particular, leave a bottle inside the door of the sick person’s room to use before exiting.

1. Spala-te, spala-te, spala-te pe maini.

Spala-te in tot timpul zilei si imediat dupa ce ai atins ceva folosit de Cel Bolnav. Cf CDC trebuie sa te freci 20 de secunde cu sapun obisnuit si sa te clatesti bine cu apa. Sapunurile antibacteriene nu sunt mai bune decat cele obisnuite.

Un efect f bun are si frecarea cu un tampon de vata inmuiat in alcool sanitar pana se evapora de pe maini. E bine sa ai peste tot in casa alcool sanitar la indemana. Mai ales e bine sa ai o sticla cu alcool sanitar langa usa camerei unde sta bolnavul ca sa te stergi inainte de a iesi.

2. Stop Touching Your Face!

More than anything, this habit enables viruses to access the vulnerable mucous membranes of your respiratory tract. It’s a hard habit to break, acknowledges Charles Gerba, Ph.D. author of The Germ Freak's Guide to Outwitting Colds and Flu. The typical adult touches his or her face around 15 times an hour. A small child? Up to 81 times an hour. “Try to become aware it and stop yourself when you can,” says Gerba.

2. Inceteaza sa-ti mai pui mainile pe fata!

Mai mult decat orice acest obicei permite virusurilor sa intre in mucoasele vulnerabile ale traiectului tau respirator. E un obicei greu de dezvatat, spune Charles Gerba, dr in medicina, autor al cartii "Germ Freak's Guide to Outwitting Colds and Flu". Un adult tipic isi atinge fata cam de 15 ori intr-o ora. Un copil mic? Cam de 81 ori pe ora. "Incearca sa-ti dai seama de asta si incearca sa te opresti de cate ori poti", zice Gerba.

3. Stand Back!

The CDC advises avoiding close contact with those infected with flu, staying at least 6 feet away whenever possible. If you must approach, remind your patient to turn away when coughing, and sneeze into a disposable tissue or into their upper sleeve. When holding a sick child, avoid face-to-face contact by placing his or her chin on your shoulder.

3. Pastreaza distanta!

CDC sfatuieste sa eviti contactul strans cu cei infectati cu gripa si sa stai la cel putin 2m de cate ori e posibil. Daca trebuie sa te apropii, reaminteste-i pacientului sa se intoarca in alta parte cand tuseste, si sa stranute intr-o batista de hartie de unica folosinta sau in partea de sus a manecii. Cand tii in brate un copil bolnav evita contactul fetei tale cu fata lui punandu-i barbia pe umarul tau.

4. Isolate

To the extent that it is possible, confine your patient to a bedroom and its adjoining bathroom. With teenagers and adults, consider leaving food, water and other necessities on a tray by the door. Disinfect the returned objects.

As difficult as it can be to isolate children, it can help limit the spread of infection, Gerber says. “Our studies show that children with flu turn homes into minefields as they wander around the house touching things,” he explains. With a baby or small child, try having one designated caregiver in the room, with arrangements for relief at designated intervals.

4. Izoleaza

Pe cat e posibil izoleaza bolnavul intr-un dormitor cu baie separata. Pt adolescenti si adulti considera solutia sa lasi mancare, apa si alte necesitati langa usa
(parca ar fi vorba de ciuma, si poate e tot asa de periculos). Dezinfecteaza obiectele returnate. (Cand a fost fata cea mare, atunci de 2 ani si 8 luni, internata cu hepatita A si eu am insotit-o, doctorita ne-a dat voie sa luam inapoi acasa "Carticica de 4 ani" a Constatei Buzea cu conditia s-o dezinfectam cu spirt. Nu s-a imbolnavit atunci nimeni altcineva din casa).

Gerber spune ca desi e f greu sa izolezi copiii lucrul acesta ar ajuta la limitarea raspandirii infectarii. "Studiile noastre arata ca toti copiii infectati cu gripa transforma casa intr-un camp minat pt ca bantuie prin casa atingand lucrurile", explica el. Pt un sugar sau un copil mic e bine sa fie cineva desemnat ca ingrijitor, aranjand sa se relaxeze la intervale determinate.

5. Disinfect

If you can give the sick their own bathroom, great. If not, concentrate your efforts on disinfecting the sink area, and avoid sharing towels, cups and other handled objects. Most household cleansers are adequate. Here again, antibacterial ingredients offer no added advantage.

If the patient strays, follow up by wiping down whatever was touched on the outing. In particular, phones and remotes are two of the biggest virus-transmitters in the home, according to Gerba’s studies.

5. Dezinfecteaza.

Daca bolnavul poate avea o camera de baie separata e grozav. Daca nu, concentreaza-te asupra dezinfectarii chiuvetei, si ai grija sa aiba prospop separat, cana si alte obiecte pe care pune mana. Poti folosi orice produs de curatat
(de ex la noi Domo, Ace, sau orice alt produs cu clor) Din nou spun ca produsele antibacteriene nu au efect.

Daca pacientul vagabondeaza (adica bantuie prin casa) umblati dupa el stergand tot ce atinge. in particular telefoanele si telecomenzile sunt cele mai mari transmitatoare de virusi din casa, spun studiile lui Gerber.

6. To Mask or Not to Mask?

Face masks get mixed marks from the experts. “Only one study showed some disease reduction,” Gerba says, “and the main benefit may be that masks keep your fingers away from your nose.”

The CDC advises wearing a face mask if you must have close contact with an infected person. A tight fit blocks the small droplets that can otherwise be inhaled around a mask’s edges. This is best achieved with N95 respirators, a tight-fitting disposable mask which may reduce the wearer’s risk of getting infected. Because they fit so snuggly, though, it can be hard to breathe through them for an extended period of time. Throw away disposable masks each day. Reusable fabric masks should be laundered and dried in a hot dryer after each use. Also remember to wash or sanitize your hands after taking off the face mask or respirator.

6. Cu masca sau fara masca.

Expertii au pareri diverse despre masti. "Numai un studiu a aratat o oarecare reducere a imbolnavirii", zice Gerber "si principalul avantaj al mastii e ca tine degetele departe de nas"

CDC avizeaza sa se poarte masca faciala daca trebuie sa ai un contact strans cu o persoana infectata. O masca fixata f strans poate sa blocheze picaturile evitand astfel inhalarea lor. Cel mai bun rezultat se obtine cu N95 respirators, o masca de unica folosinta f stransa care poate reduce riscul purtatorului de a se infecta. Pt ca sunt atat de stranse totusi poate fi dificil sa respiri prin ele o perioada mai mare de timp. Arunca mastile dispozabile in fiecare zi. Mastile refolosibile se vor spala si se vor usca la temperatura ridicata (intr-un uscator de rufe) De asemenea aminteste-ti sa te speli sau dezinfectezi pe maini dupa ce scoti masca sau respiratorul de pe fata.

7. Ask Your Doctor About Antivirals

If you’re the primary caregiver, talk to your doctor about taking an antiviral medication, like Tamiflu or Relenza, to reduce your risk of infection. That said, when stocks are low, doctors will reserve these medications for those at the highest risk for flu complications, such as pregnant women and seniors.

7. Intreaba-l (cere, pt ca nu se pot lua fara reteta) pe doctor despre antivirale

Daca esti ingrijitor de bolnav vorbeste cu doctoruldespre luarea unui antiviral, cum ar fi Tamiflu sau Relenza, pt a-ti reduce riscul deinfectare. Acestea fiind zise, cand stocurile sunt insuficiente, doctorii vor rezerva aceasta medicatie pt cei cu risc crescut la complicatiile gripei, cum ar fi gravidele si persoanele peste 60 de ani.

8. Take Care of Yourself

Experts agree that a strong immune system is your best defense against getting sick in any situation. That means you need plenty of sleep, lots of fluids and exercise, along with a healthy diet.

8.Ai grija de tine

Expertii sunt de acord ca un sistem imunitar puternic este cea mai buna aparare impotriva imbolnavirii in orice situatie. Asta inseamna ca trebuie sa dormi cat e nevoie, sa bei o multime de lichide si sa faci miscare, deasemenea sa urmezi o dieta sanatoasa.

2 comentarii:

disa spunea...

Am citit cu rabdare si atentie tot ce-ai tradus si vreau sa pun linkul si pe blogul meu.
Eu trebuie sa-i cam ingrijesc pe toti din familie, cand sunt bolnavi, dar de mine nu se preocupa nimeni.

Viorica spunea...

Poti sa copiezi linistita toata partea tradusa(bineinteles cu linkul de rigoare), e OK.
Ai grija te rog daca, Doamne fereste, se imbolnaveste cineva sa respecti cu orice pret sfatul nr 8. Nu e dat intamplator.